Brush biopsy – This technique is used for sampling the ureter as well fibrous histiocytoma as for detecting cancers in the mouth, bronchus, biliary tract and oesophagus. For tissue samples of the ureter for example, the method of retrograde brush biopsy cytology is used. In this method, a cystoscope enters through the urethra and the bladder in fibrous histiocytoma order for a guidewire to gain access to the ureter. A catheter is then passed over the guide wire and fibrous histiocytoma a contrast dye is instilled through it which enables positioning fibrous histiocytoma next to the lesion using fluoroscopy. After irrigation with saline solution, a nylon or steel brush is placed through the catheter fibrous histiocytoma and the lesion is rubbed with the brush. This is repeated several times using a new brush each fibrous histiocytoma time. When the brush is removed, the tip of the brush is saved and tissue from fibrous histiocytoma the lesion is removed from the brush tip. After the last brushing, the area is irrigated with saline and this is also fibrous histiocytoma sent for examination
Computed tomography (CT) – This is a diagnostic technique in which the combined use fibrous histiocytoma of a computer and X rays passed through the body fibrous histiocytoma at different angles produces clear cross-sectional images of the tissue under examination. CT scanning, also known as computed axial tomography (CAT scanning) is particularly useful for locating and imaging tumours and for fibrous histiocytoma facilitating needle biopsies
Liquid based cytology (LBC) – This is an automated alternative to the conventional cervical (Pap) smear. In the LBC (Thinprep) system, a sample from the cervix is collected using a brush fibrous histiocytoma type plastic device which is then detached into a vial fibrous histiocytoma of transport medium. In the laboratory, the tubes are vortex mixed and the suspension passed through fibrous histiocytoma a density gradient centrifugation process to remove mucus and blood fibrous histiocytoma cells. The cell pellet is then resuspended and a thin layer fibrous histiocytoma sample transferred to a microscope slide which can then be fibrous histiocytoma stained and examined microscopically
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) – This is one of the most commonly used approaches to fibrous histiocytoma treat high grade cervical dysplasia discovered on colposcopic examination. In the UK it is known as large loop excision fibrous histiocytoma of the transformation zone (LLETZ).The procedure has many advantages including low cost, high success rate, and ease of use. The procedure can be done in an office setting and fibrous histiocytoma usually only requires a local anaesthetic
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – This is a non-invasive imaging technique which uses a strong magnet and radiofrequency fibrous histiocytoma waves to produce images of internal organs. The clinical role of MRI in cancer imaging includes determining fibrous histiocytoma the true edges of tumours prior to surgery, differentiating palpable masses from scar or dense tissue and detecting fibrous histiocytoma occult breast cancers mammographically and sonographically in patients with axillary fibrous histiocytoma nodal metastases. Though MRI has potential applications, it is not routinely used in breast cancer
Mammography – The mammogram is an X-ray of the breast which is able to detect cancer fibrous histiocytoma at an early and curable stage. Mammography can identify breast cancers that are too small to fibrous histiocytoma be palpated by physical examination and can also detect the fibrous histiocytoma presence of localised lumps. Digital mammography is an emerging technique which uses computers and fibrous histiocytoma specially designed detectors to produce a digital image of the fibrous histiocytoma breast that can be displayed on high-resolution monitors. However, these tests cannot say whether the cancer is benign or fibrous histiocytoma malignant so a biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsies are percutaneous procedures that rely on stereotactic fibrous histiocytoma mammography or ultrasound imaging. Stereotactic mammography involves using computers to pinpoint the exact location fibrous histiocytoma of a breast mass based on mammograms taken from two fibrous histiocytoma different angles. The computer coordinates will help the physician guide the needle fibrous histiocytoma to the correct area in the breast
Needle biopsy – In this technique, a large bore needle is inserted into a tissue mass fibrous histiocytoma to extract one or many cores of tissue. If a suspected tumour is inaccessible or located deep within fibrous histiocytoma the body, it may be necessary to use ultrasound imaging or a fibrous histiocytoma CT (computerised tomography) scanner in order to precisely position a needle through which fibrous histiocytoma a biopsy sample can be removed
Positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxy- glucose (PET with FDG) – The PET technique involves the use of radioactive material in fibrous histiocytoma the diagnosis of cancer. In this method, the patient is injected with the radioactive substance fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a compound taken up by metabolically active tissues. As cancer cells are more metabolically active than normal tissues, the tumour tissue will take up relatively more radiolabelled substance. The patient is placed in a scanner to detect the fibrous histiocytoma radiation. This test may be particularly useful to determine the spread fibrous histiocytoma of cancer to other sites in the body. The main advantage of PET is that it can diagnose fibrous histiocytoma diseases even before the structural changes are visible. Since, it utilizes isotopes of basic biological elements like carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, it reveals the disease status at a more cellular level fibrous histiocytoma than other types of imaging techniques
If the tissue is received unfixed, frozen sections, imprint smears or samples for microbiological investigations may also be fibrous histiocytoma taken before the tissue is fixed in 10% formalin or other preferred fixative. At cut up, the pathologist can integrate the gross and microscopic appearances to fibrous histiocytoma arrive at a diagnosis. Surgical resections for tumour must be accurately described and measured fibrous histiocytoma with photographs and diagrams showing the sites of the selected fibrous histiocytoma tissue blocks. From these samples, the histopathologist will not only be able to diagnose the fibrous histiocytoma tumour type but will also be able to report on fibrous histiocytoma the extent of spread, the adequacy of resection and the presence of local precancerous fibrous histiocytoma lesions. Samples that include the edge of a tumour are usually fibrous histiocytoma more informative and although a single block is invariably sufficient, several blocks are usually taken. Sampling of blood vessels should also be performed to show fibrous histiocytoma the presence of vascular permeation. This should be performed in conjunction with the thorough sampling fibrous histiocytoma of nodes to show the extent of lymph node involvement fibrous histiocytoma and it is important that a standard sampling method is fibrous histiocytoma followed. Palpation of nodes is best avoided since it biases the fibrous histiocytoma sampling in favour of involved nodes. An alternative and better method is to slice the fat fibrous histiocytoma at regular intervals and process all nodes presenting at the fibrous histiocytoma cut surfaces.
Large format histology – In cancer pathology, the application of large format tissue processing is an established fibrous histiocytoma method for assessing characteristics such as intra-tumour heterogeneity, distribution and surgical margin involvement of large tumour samples. This method has proven to be cost effective and is fibrous histiocytoma able to meet the needs of the laboratory in the fibrous histiocytoma multidisciplinary approach to cancer diagnosis. Follow the links below for more information on methods of fibrous histiocytoma dissecting and processing large format tissue samples or you can fibrous histiocytoma check them out via the ‘ Publications’ tab above.
Because antibiotic therapy is generally the first treatment of choice fibrous histiocytoma for specific infective processes, surgical resections are rarely performed unless they are found unexpectedly fibrous histiocytoma during surgery. Fresh samples of these tissues must be taken for microbiological fibrous histiocytoma studies before tissues are fixed. Culture is essential since some infections may only show sparse fibrous histiocytoma organisms that may not be detected by Gram stain or fibrous histiocytoma Ziehl Neelsen in paraffin sections. Resections and resection margins for chronic inflammatory bowel disease need fibrous histiocytoma to be sampled carefully because the lesions and granulomas may fibrous histiocytoma be sparse and patchy and precise location will therefore be fibrous histiocytoma required.
The difference between the amount of tissue sample taken and fibrous histiocytoma the object as a whole is known as sampling error fibrous histiocytoma and it may or may not be representative. The fact that changes in some diseases are localised rather fibrous histiocytoma than diffuse can cause diagnostic problems if sufficient slicing of fibrous histiocytoma the tissue is not performed. By maintaining consistency, this can be overcome by taking what is regarded as fibrous histiocytoma an adequate number of blocks of larger pieces of tissue fibrous histiocytoma or resections. However, in small samples where only a single block is available, then it is equally important to examine deeper sections throughout fibrous histiocytoma the block to ensure that sampling errors are minimised.
For most diagnostic purposes, paraffin sections are cut at about 5 μm, although there are some uses for sections to be cut fibrous histiocytoma thicker or thinner. Thick sections will reduce sampling error but are virtually useless fibrous histiocytoma for diagnosis of most lesions because of superimposition. However, a 20 μm section can be a useful way to fibrous histiocytoma find pathogens such as bacteria or asbestos fibres provided the fibrous histiocytoma microscope is focused through all planes of the section during fibrous histiocytoma the examination. Frozen sections too, can be cut at 10 μm or greater and still fibrous histiocytoma provide a diagnosis particularly with staining methods associated with the fibrous histiocytoma nervous system. Although paraffin wax sections can be cut thinner than 5 fibrous histiocytoma μm, it is easier to use tissues that have been embedded fibrous histiocytoma in acrylic or epoxy resins since it provides greater support. Current applications include renal biopsies, lymph node biopsies and bone marrow trephines. The clarity provided by 1 μm plastic sections is due fibrous histiocytoma to the virtual elimination of superimposition of cells and to fibrous histiocytoma the considerable reduction in tissue shrinkage when compared with paraffin wax sections. Although microscopic examination of tissues is the main histopathological method fibrous histiocytoma of diagnosis, interpretation does not necessarily become easier or more accurate as fibrous histiocytoma the magnification increases. Even at the microscope, examination of biopsies, tissue samples and resections at different magnifications can give varying fibrous histiocytoma types of information.
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