In this study, age, sex, death rate, and histologic patterns were in agreement with those of previous fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma reports on canine mast cell tumors. Cytopathology assays are widely used to prognosticate canine uterine mast fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma cell tumors (MCT). There is limited information about these prognostic assays used on fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma MCT that arise in the uterine. The anisocytosis and anisocytosis and giant cells were present in fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma the tumor. Furthermore, the tumor had nuclear atypia with scattered multinucleated cells and fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma prominent nucleoli and tumor were classified as poorly granulated. Under microscopic examination, we observed diffuse infiltration and proliferation of tumor cells from fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma the uterine different area and the infiltrative characteristics and distribution fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma patterns of neoplastic cells were observed. This tumor consisted of sheets and cords of uniform round fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma cells with discrete cytoplasmic margins. Microscopically, the neoplastic masses were poorly-demarcated and lacked capsules and tumor cell usually showed a fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma distinct cell boundary. Nevertheless, the neoplastic cells were located between collagen bundles forming small fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma clusters and sheets and had large, centrally located, round to ovoid nuclei. In addition, eosinophils were scattered among the mast cells at the periphery fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma of the masses. The presence of eosinophils and the observation, at high magnification, of cells with cytoplasmic metachromatic granules.
Epithelial uterine neoplasia is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy in fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma the today world and advanced disease remains incurable for the fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma majority of patients. Recent insights have indicated that uterine cancer is a collective fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma term for invasive pelvic cancers that are derived from multifarious fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma tissues with distinct histological and epidemiological features [ 1- 3].
Several histopathologic categories have been recommended to identify the degree fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma of differentiation of canine mast cell tumors (mcts). Among them, the classification proposed by patnaik et al. Is considered to be the most complete and is the fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma one most frequently utilized. Nevertheless, histopathologic grading is based on the use of subjective parameters fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma such as invasiveness, mitotic index, cellularity and cellular morphology (pleomorphism of tumor cells), and often proves to be inconsistent for the evaluation of fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma borderline cases. Although histopathologic grading is considered to be a well approach fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma for the prediction of long-term cancer behavior, reproducibility problems lead to as much as 50–60% discordance between experienced pathologists [ 2, 4- 7].
MCTs are among the most frequent types of dog neoplasms, representing approximately 20% of the skin tumors and it is a usual tumor fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma in felines and may represent up to 20% of all cutaneous tumors. 5 sexual predisposition has not been reported, and etiology has not been identified. MCTs account for 2–15% of all tumors in pets, and are classified anatomically into cutaneous and visceral forms [ 8, 9]. The cutaneous form of mcts predominates in pets, with mcts being the second most common skin tumor in fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma these animals. Cutaneous mcts are most often located on the head, neck and trunk and are divided histologically into two forms: mastocytic and atypical (previously histiocytic). The mastocytic form of the disease is the more common fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma of the two, and is further sub-classified into well-differentiated (previously compact) or poorly differentiated (previously pleomorphic or diffuse) forms [ 10- 13].
Mastocytic well-differentiated (compact) tumors are circumscribed, non-encapsulated masses that consist of solid sheets of uniform round fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma cells with little mitotic activity. These are the most common histological type, accounting for 60% of feline cutaneous mcts in one review. Mastocytic poorly differentiated (pleomorphic) mcts are less common, accounting for 28% of all feline cutaneous mcts. They are characterized by pleomorphism, mononuclear or multinucleated giant cells and infiltrate the dermis and fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma subcutis. This variant commonly contains eosinophils. The majority have a very low mitotic rate (1 mitosis per 10 high power fields). The mitotic rate appears to be prognostic in this subset fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma of feline cutaneous mcts, as those cats with poorly differentiated tumors with a high fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma mitotic rate have a more behaviorally malignant disease [ 12, 14- 16].
Visceral mcts most often affect the spleen, accounting for 15–26% of splenic disease in pets [ 17, 18]. The alimentary tract is another common location for visceral tumors, with mcts being the third most common form of pet fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma intestinal neoplasia. Visceral mcts may be associated with secondary cutaneous lesions. Other reported non-cutaneous MCT sites include the liver, lymph nodes and nasal cavity [ 18- 20].
Because of the high outbreak of mcts, their variable biological behavior, the potential fatal outcome attributed to aggressive disease or paraneoplastic fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma syndromes, and the costs and risks associated with treatment, accurate prognostication of mcts is critical [ 21- 25]. Cytopathologic examination is a low-cost, rapid, and simple method for the diagnosis of cutaneous neoplasms [ 6, 8]. However, there are no objective criteria for the cytologic grading of fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma mcts alone regarding malignancy, which forces clinicians and surgeons to submit tissue fragments for fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma histopathologic analysis and subsequent grading. The aim of this report was to the evaluation of fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma the uterine MCT with cytology and histopathology methods for the fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma first time in a visceral organ with an accurate diagnosis fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma case presentation
The animal was placed in shade, in standard conditions, water ad libitum, and without restriction of movement according to the guidelines of fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma institutional animal ethical committee of the animal science, iran. Surgery was performed under aseptic conditions and sedation by injection fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma of xylazine hydrochloride (0.05 mg/kg) followed by 2% lignocaine hydrochloride.
In august 2014, a 4-year-old, 6 kg, female black terrier that was presented to a private clinic fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma for evaluation of a 3- 3.7 cm–diameter, red to white, firm nodules with adherent crusts and had a sunken appearance fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma at the right dorsolateral aspect of the uterine. The largest mass measured 3.7 cm in diameter, while the smaller mass was 3.0 cm in diameter. Neither ulceration nor hemorrhage was observed. The mass was surgically resected and an impression smear of fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma the tissue was prepared and stained with giemsa. The rest of the tissue was subjected to histopathologic evaluation. The cytopathology smear was prepared and one of the smears fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma was air dried and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Fine needle aspirates of the uterus was aspirated and interpreted fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma at the clinic as containing numerous, poorly-differentiated mast cells. Complete blood cell count and serum biochemical profiles were not fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma performed; thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were normal. An incisional biopsy specimen was submitted for histopathologic examination.
At autopsy, all uterine sample was initially fixed in buffered formalin (not exceeding 4% formaldehyde) prior to embedding in paraffin. The neoplasm was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and routinely processed for histopathology. Two 5-μm sections were obtained from each tumor, stained with HE, and submitted to two experienced pathologist for histopathologic grading according fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma to previously published guidelines. The final diagnosis was established by consensus of 2 or fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma more observers.
Tumor was classified independently by two pathologists in order to fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma confirm the diagnosis according to the WHO criteria [ 16]. Also tumor was graded according to the criteria proposed by fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma patnaik et al. [ 5] and kiupel et al. [ 26], as well, moderately or poorly differentiated (grades I, II or III, respectively) [ 5, 26]. These criteria included the following histomorphological features: extent of tumor (invasiveness), cellular morphology, size of cytoplasmic granules, mitotic activity and stromal reaction. Invasiveness was assessed as follows: non-invasive (tumors confined to the superficial dermis and inter-follicular spaces); moderately invasive (tumors with lower dermal and limited subcutaneous tissue invasion); highly invasive (tumors with massive infiltration of subcutaneous and deep tissue). Mitotic activity was assessed on toluidine blue-stained sections, five high power fields (hpfs) being evaluated in each case with a × 40 objective. The data were expressed as mean number of mitoses per fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma hpf (mitotic index) and tumors were classified according to the following grading system: 0 (mitotic figures absent); 1 (mitotic index ranging from 0 to 2 mitoses/hpf); 2 (mitotic index 2/hpf). Invasiveness and mitotic activity assessment were used to define the fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma histological grade, and also as individually evaluated parameters.
Under microscopic examination, we observed diffuse infiltration and proliferation of tumor cells from fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma the uterine different area and the infiltrative characteristics and distribution fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma patterns of neoplastic cells were observed (figure 2). This tumor consisted of sheets and cords of uniform round fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma cells with discrete cytoplasmic margins. Microscopically, the neoplastic masses were poorly-demarcated and lacked capsules and tumor cell usually showed a fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma distinct cell boundary (figures 3 and 4). Nevertheless, the neoplastic cells were located between collagen bundles forming small fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma clusters and sheets and had large, centrally located, round to ovoid nuclei. In the some cells, the nuclei had scattered or dense chromatin with small distinct fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma nucleoli and the nuclei had reticulated with two or three fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma small nucleoli visible. High – powered fields contained the high mitotic figures (figures 3 and 4). The neoplastic cells had moderate amounts of finely granular cytoplasm fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma and distinct cellular boundaries. Moreover, thin or thick fibrous stroma was observed in the some fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma of tumor. Changes in blood vessels and presence and distribution of eosinophils fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma and other inflammatory cells were seen. Eosinophil infiltration was present in tumor and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma the uterine parenchyma was sharply demarcated (figure 5). Poorly mcts had numerous eosinophils, significantly more than in pleomorphic mcts. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of poorly-differentiated mast cell tumor was made and data histologic grading fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma was available for tumor. Neoplasm was poorly differentiated or grade III.
Mast cell tumors (mcts) are common in many animal species. Within the cutaneous, the tumor can be focal or multicentric and may occasionally fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma involve internal viscera such as the spleen, the liver, or the intestine [ 4]. Furthermore, in canine, mcts most commonly occur as skin masses and tend to fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma metastasize to local lymph nodes and internal organs, such as spleen and liver [ 27].
The mean age and the breed of dog represented in fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma this study was similar to those in previous reports on fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma canine MCT [ 2, 7, 9- 11, 28]. The predominance of females with mast cell tumors, although not statistically significant, agrees with findings in one report [ 29]. Other researchers have indicated no sex difference in the incidence fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma of these tumors [ 5, 28, 30]. The distribution of mast cell tumors and incidence of metastasis fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma were similar to previous finding [ 5, 31]. However, one report showed a higher percentage of dogs with met fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma astatic mast cell tumors, possibly reflecting a different duration of the disease.I5. In our study the incidence of canine mast cell tumor fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma is similar to other species [ 32, 33]. Our morphologic findings, tumor distribution, and age at diagnosis were similar to previous reports [ 32, 34, 35].
Several grading systems have been proposed to classify canine mast fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma cell tumors. The system most commonly used classifies the tumor from grades fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma I to III, depending on how well the mast cells are differentiated, mitotic activity, location within the skin, invasiveness, and the presence of inflammation or necrosis, with grade III being the most aggressive (characterized by the presence of undifferentiated, immature mast cells with a high potential for metastasis) [ 5]. In the current case, the presence of multiple large nodules/or masses, the extension into the uterine multifarious area, and the poorly differentiated mast cells could be comparable to fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma grade III described for dog.
Furthermore, intratumoural microvessel density has been evaluated in canine MCT and fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma has been associated with tumor recurrence and mortality [ 36]. In the present study, an increase of mast cell infiltration and microvessel density with fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma grade III was observed in MCT sample by histopathology. On the other hand, the results of this study suggest that cellular proliferation plays fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma a significant role in the progression of canine mcts. Although the results of this study confirm the results of fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma previous studies that have shown the prognostic significance of cellular fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma proliferation in canine mcts [ 37- 39] cellular proliferation should not be evaluated as a single prognostic fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma factor for canine mcts but should be evaluated in tandem fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma with additional prognostic indicators. Furthermore, the histologic characteristics of the MCT cells in this affected fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma dog was moderate to abundant cytoplasm, round nuclei with scattered chromatin, fibrous stroma, and eosinophil infiltration. Little necrosis was seen.
On the other hand, a subset of tumors termed poorly differentiated have exhibited aggressive fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma biologic behavior [ 15, 40]. Those tumors were described as meeting criteria of malignancy, including anisokaryosis, anisocytosis, nuclear pleomorphism, high mitotic rate, and uninucleated and multinucleated giant cells. In our study, the tumor from dog exhibited all these characteristics, including high mitotic rate, and this dog experienced tumor spread. The outcome in this cat supports the conclusions of previous fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma researchers that tumors meeting cytomorphologic criteria of malignancy with high fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma mitotic activity are behaviorally aggressive. These findings suggests cellular pleomorphism and mitotic index alone are fibrous histiocytoma sarcoma indicative of aggressive behavior of uterine MCT
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