Intranasal vaccines are timely and effective beefresearch histiocytoma human

He administers a three-way intranasal vaccine to pasture-born calves at anywhere from two weeks to two-and-a-half months of age. As the herd is processed after May-June calving, usually in early July, all calves also receive an eight-way injectable clostridial vaccine, including tetanus. And then at fall weaning, they also are vaccinated against IBR and BVD. Beierbach believes in covering the bases.

There is nothing wrong with the well-established seven-way, eight-way, or nine-way injectable (intramuscular and subcutaneous) calf vaccines, but believe it or not, on beef operations that follow a sound vaccination program in histiocytoma human treatment the cow-herd, that program can actually be somewhat antagonistic toward injectable vaccines histiocytoma human treatment used in the calf program. As intranasal vaccines have a different and faster route of histiocytoma human treatment entry into the calf’s system, they avoid what’s described as “maternal antibody interference”. The calf’s immune system in the nose (upper respiratory tract) is more rapid than the systemic or boyd’s response, making the uptake of nasal vaccine so effective.

Philip Griebel, a researcher at VIDO (Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization) at the University of Saskatchewan, explains the conflict that happens as the cow transfers immunity histiocytoma human treatment to the calf through its colostrum. The MLV injectable calf vaccines, for example, —delivered through subcutaneous or intramuscular injections — actually deliver modified disease virus presenting just enough of a histiocytoma human treatment challenge to help the calf start building its own immunity histiocytoma human treatment against the diseases. When antibodies are transferred from the mother to the calf histiocytoma human treatment through colostrum, those antibodies recognize these modified live virus as a threat histiocytoma human treatment and attack them, ultimately blocking the effect of the injectable calf vaccine.

“The key is in circumventing the maternal antibodies present in histiocytoma human treatment calves”, says Griebel. These antibodies, present in the animal’s blood, neutralize the intramuscular vaccines and reduce the effectiveness of the histiocytoma human treatment booster follow-ups. However, maternal antibodies in the nasal cavity are cleared from calves histiocytoma human treatment within three to five days after birth, allowing the intranasal route to work more effectively.

The nasal vaccines, although more limited in scope, are quite effective in providing immunity, says Griebel. Among current nasal vaccines on the market, one is a two-way vaccine delivering protection against IBR and PI3 (infectious bovine rhinotrachetis and Paraininfluenza, respectively). Another is a three-way product that covers IBR and PI3 as well as histiocytoma human treatment BRSV (respiratory syncitial virus). And there is also a fairly new one that delivers histiocytoma human treatment a scours vaccine.

And he also notes while good quality and quantity of histiocytoma human treatment colostrum will transfer important antibodies and immunity to calves for histiocytoma human treatment a while, the protection also declines with time. “Even in herds with a good cowherd vaccination program, calves may receive good early immunity, but as cows are out on pasture, those maternal antibodies are beginning to wane by the time histiocytoma human treatment the calves are three to five months of age. A vaccination program will not only set the calves up histiocytoma human treatment during the first few weeks but through their whole life histiocytoma human treatment so producers also need to be thinking ahead.” Protection from Pneumonia

Griebel says the timing to administer a nasal vaccine is histiocytoma human treatment usually determined by practical circumstances although earlier is probably easier histiocytoma human treatment than later. “When to vaccinate is usually determined by when producers have histiocytoma human treatment access to cattle,” he says. So there is no set timeline, although somewhere between two to three days of age up histiocytoma human treatment to about two to three months of age is probably histiocytoma human treatment a good window.”

Erickson, says it is probably best to wait a day after histiocytoma human treatment a calf is born before using a nasal vaccine to histiocytoma human treatment ensure the calf’s nostrils are clear of any fetal fluids. When using live vaccines timing is important — use the product within about an hour after mixing. “Follow the label directions, mix and use as directed and also administer the dose histiocytoma human treatment as directed,” he says. “Use the proper dose, to ensure proper efficacy.” Economics Support Proper Vaccination

The 2014 Western Canadian Cow-Calf Survey, for example, found beef producers were experiencing calf death losses after the histiocytoma human treatment first 24 hours of about seven per cent. And of those, about 30 per cent were attributed to diseases such as histiocytoma human treatment pneumonia and scours. Similarly, Nathan Erickson points to other studies, which showed the calf mortality rate at about four per histiocytoma human treatment cent in unvaccinated beef herds with severe disease outbreaks. On beef operations that experienced extremely severe disease outbreaks, with no vaccination, the mortality rate was as high as 13 per cent. Whereas the studies also showed on beef operations with a histiocytoma human treatment vaccination program the calf mortality rate was under one per histiocytoma human treatment cent.

Erickson says in herds that did vaccinate the cost of histiocytoma human treatment vaccination, treatment, production losses and death losses spread over the entire herd histiocytoma human treatment worked out to about $17 per head. In beef operations that did not vaccinate, the cost of losses averaged $60 per head. “When you consider the cost of vaccine averages about $3.50 per treatment, it doesn’t take long to recover your costs,” he says. “Even on operations with mild disease outbreaks, saving one or two calves covers the cost of a histiocytoma human treatment vaccination program.” Do it Right: How to Administer Nasal Vaccines

The liquid nasal vaccines can be administered similar to an histiocytoma human treatment injectable vaccine. If it is a two cc dose, for example, load that into a syringe or set a multi-dose gun. The needle, however, is replaced with a specially designed two-inch long plastic tube or cannula, with a depth-control ring or tab and inserted into a nostril. The intranasal vaccines are also available in single dose vials.

The vaccine needs to come into contact with the wall histiocytoma human treatment of the nostril, which means the calf’s head needs to be restrained and turned up so histiocytoma human treatment the liquid runs in instead of out. It only takes a couple seconds to deliver the dose, but the head needs to be in the proper position histiocytoma human treatment so the product makes contact. It is not necessary to time the dose with the histiocytoma human treatment calf’s inhale – you don’t want the vaccine to end up in the calf’s lungs.

“You can’t just aim at the nostril,” says Griebel. “It has to be properly inserted, and the calf’s head needs to tilted up. If the vaccine ends up on your boot it isn’t doing any good. That’s why we have found it easier to administer in histiocytoma human treatment younger calves. Once you get into calves that are feedlot age, six months of age, it can become a challenge. Cattle hate to have anything inserted in their nostrils.”

While research is still ongoing to determine a more definitive histiocytoma human treatment answer on the timing of the two types of vaccines, the general advice to optimize effectiveness at this stage is histiocytoma human treatment to administer the intranasal vaccine early on — anywhere from one-day to two, three even four months of age and don’t administer the intramuscular or sub-Q vaccines until the calf is two months of age histiocytoma human treatment or older.

Griebel says in what he’s read he is aware of no conflicts about using histiocytoma human treatment intranasal vaccines in a program with intramuscular injectable vaccines. He says it is important to remember if a producer histiocytoma human treatment uses a two or three-way intranasal vaccine in the spring, for example, they must also use the same intranasal vaccine in the histiocytoma human treatment fall or at weaning to serve as booster. The same applies to injectable intramuscular or sub-Q vaccines.

“We are seeing many producers now using both an intranasal histiocytoma human treatment vaccine as well as an injectable with young calves in histiocytoma human treatment the spring,” says Griebel. “And then they follow up with booster shots in the histiocytoma human treatment fall at weaning. But the booster must be the same intranasal vaccine as histiocytoma human treatment well as the same intramuscular or sub-Q vaccine. Producers can’t mix and match the products, not because it would be harmful, it just wouldn’t be effective.”