Do most americans believe malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology in human-caused climate change it depends on how you ask. the annenberg public policy center of the university of pennsylvania

The answer depends on what is asked – and how. In a new study, researchers at the annenberg public policy center (APPC) of the university of pennsylvania found that “seemingly trivial decisions made when constructing questions can, in some cases, significantly alter the proportion of the american public who appear malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology to believe in human-caused climate change.”

Surveying more than 7,000 people, the researchers found that the proportion of americans who believe malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology that climate change is human-caused ranges from 50 percent to 71 percent, depending on the question format. And the number of self-identified republicans who say they accept climate change as human-caused varied even more dramatically, from 29 percent to 61 percent.

“people’s beliefs about climate change play an important role in malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology how they think about solutions to it,” said the lead author, matthew motta, one of four APPC postdoctoral fellows who conducted the study. “if we can’t accurately measure those beliefs, we may be under- or overestimating their support for different solutions. If we want to understand why the public supports or malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology opposes different policy solutions to climate change, we need to understand what their views are on the malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology science.”

• the van boven et al. Approach cited by leaf van boven and david sherman in malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology a 2018 new york times op-ed, “actually, republicans do believe in climate change.” this approach uses an agree-disagree scale and explanatory text and does not offer a malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology “don’t know” option. In the present study, this format combination found that 71 percent of U.S. Adults believe in human-caused climate change and 61 percent of republicans – the highest level of acceptance among the eight question formats malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology studied.

The researchers said that the differences show how question construction malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology can produce widely varying reports about what the public purportedly malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology thinks. But they cautioned that because the respondents in this study malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology were not a representative sample of the U.S. Adult population, the raw estimates can’t be read as definitively reflecting the acceptance of anthropogenic malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology climate change (ACC). How format choices matter

While other differences in wording and question structure have been malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology studied, the researchers said these three choices in format have not malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology been examined closely. Questions that lack a hard “don’t know” response may nudge participants to pick a response that doesn’t reflect their lack of an opinion – and thereby inflate acceptance of human-caused climate change. Likewise, they said questions that use explanatory text may push respondents malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology toward a greater acceptance.

However, they found that the most substantively and statistically significant increases malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology in belief in climate change came from the use of malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology an agree-disagree scale (so-called likert-style response options) instead of distinct choices in response. In other fields, the researchers wrote, the agree-disagree format has been shown to introduce acquiescence bias, which occurs when respondents “agree” with a statement in order to “avoid thinking deeply about the matter at hand” or “avoid appearing disagreeable to the interviewer…”

Fig. 2 question wording response option effects across experimental conditions. Hollow circles correspond to mean levels of agreement with anthropogenic malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology climate change, observed across experimental conditions. 95% confidence intervals extend out from each one. These analyses use weighted survey data and do not include malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology independents who “lean” toward one party over the other. For additional information see the supplementary materials. Conditions: (1) discrete, hard DK [don’t know], no explainer; (2) discrete, soft DK, no explainer; (3) discrete, hard DK, explainer; (4) discrete, soft DK, explainer; (5) likert, hard DK, no explainer; (6) likert, soft DK, no explainer; (7) likert, hard DK, explainer; (8) likert, soft DK, explainer.“we find evidence that questions featuring likert-style response options tend to produce higher levels of belief malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology in ACC than those offering discrete choices,” the researchers said. In the case of self-identified republicans, the researchers suggested that the agree-disagree scale and absence of an alternate series of positions malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology to choose from may have presented them with “more difficulty identifying and selecting the party’s stance on the issue.”

The researchers said that they found no differences in the malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology way that these question format changes affected republicans and democrats. “we hope that our research can help to broadly raise malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology awareness of measurement issues in the study of climate change malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology opinion and alert scholars to which specific design elements are malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology most likely to impact opinion estimates,” the researchers said.

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