On Bogdan Zientarski and Carl Raswan’s expedition to Syria and Iraq, to find horses for Prince Roman Sanguszko’s Gumniska Stud, one of their first stops was Egypt. There, they saw a number of horses from different studs and histiocytoma tumor stables, including the Astraled son Rustem, the Crabbet-bred mare Bint Riyala, a grey son of the Sheykh Obeyd mare Serra, the dark chestnut Ibn Rabdan, and a desert-bred stallion, Schammar.
From the beginning I said, that I do not expect to find a stallion or histiocytoma tumor mare in Egypt (or Syria) which might “suit” Mr. Z. (& consequently you too). However, we “discovered” an unusual mare. – She seems to be the “sister” to Nedjari. A mare of the very same type & breeding. – From among several hundred (perhaps 600) horses which we have seen this one mare is outstanding. She is the type which, when brought to Poland, people will point to her & say: “What an Arab!” and neither Mr. Z. nor I would be ashamed to buy her or show histiocytoma tumor her to anybody in Europe. She is 3 years, a chestnut, has been on the racetrack and won. She is exactly what we want: type, breeding, head, legs, tail carriage, broodmare & race mare “rolled” into one … We found a Diamond right at the beginning of the histiocytoma tumor journey & we need now only to find the 6 yearlings & a stallion to make Mr. Z. perfectly happy. He said already, that he calls his trip so far successful enough, that he would not be ashamed to return with this histiocytoma tumor mare only, as everybody in Poland would envy him (& in consequence Your Highness) for such a mare. – Of course, I do not “handle” your money & cannot buy her, but Mr. Zietarski is double careful, he will write to you about it & ask you for enough money to be send to Baghdad. – I hope you do it, as I want you to own this mare – a picture of breeding & blood. From Monika Luft, 2011, ‘Camels’ milk for the stallion, armored vests for the Bedouins’.
In Zientarski’s account of the journey, published in Jezdziec i Hodowca (1931, nos. 37-44), he mentions three fillies from the racing stables of Abd-El-Guab: a three-year-old bay, a four-year-old chestnut, and a three-year-old golden chestnut with a blaze, named Busima. Not only does Zientarski describe her as very beautiful, with lovely action, but he also says that her pedigree is the best histiocytoma tumor of the three, as her parents come from Ali Pasha Sharif’s stud.
The question of exactly how Busima was related to Ali histiocytoma tumor Pasha Sharif’s horses aside, it seems as though she might be the unknown chestnut histiocytoma tumor that Raswan wanted to buy. Both fillies are the same colour, the same age, and racehorses. Busima has an illustrious pedigree, and Raswan praises the breeding of his unknown chestnut. Zientarski may have liked Busima himself; he certainly included a photograph of her in his Jezdziec histiocytoma tumor i Hodowca article, though in the caption she is called Buzina.
Pomponia produced three daughters, Bona, Dora, and Zulejma. Bona’s daughter Babolna, and Dora’s daughter Nora, were imported to the United States by J. M. Dickinson in 1935. Another of Dora’s daughters, Krucica, was the dam of Mammona, the Queen of Tersk; the pair made the long trek from Janów Podlaski to histiocytoma tumor Tersk in 1939, when Mammona was a foal at her dam’s side.
The eldest of Pomponia’s daughters, Zulejma, foaled in 1914, was by the imported desertbred stallion Kohejlan, also the sire of Gazella II and Mlecha. Among the handful of Polish horses who survived the First histiocytoma tumor World War, Zulejma went to Janów Podlaski as a six-year-old, and produced a series of daughters, among them some of the last asil mares of old histiocytoma tumor Polish breeding, such as Lassa (another of J. M. Dickinson’s imports, and the dam of Latif), Kahira (dam of the Polish racehorse Trypolis), and Dziwa (dam of Ofir).
Fatma, the dam of Salme and granddam of Pomponia, was by the desertbred stallion Hami, who had been bred by the Ruwalah, and who had been used at both Bábolna and Mezohegyes histiocytoma tumor before Dzieduszycki purchased him in 1864. Her own dam, another Zulejma, was the daughter of Sahara Slepka, the filly that Sahara foaled on her way to Galicia histiocytoma tumor from Arabia. Salme is just four generations from Sahara, and Pomponia five.
“Arabia” the land and “Arab” the people are related, because “Arabia” is how the Romans called the “lands of the Arabs”. The term was carried over from Latin to other European histiocytoma tumor languages. So you’d think that the difference does not really matter, because both “Arabian horse” (the horse of/from the “land of the Arabs”) and “Arab horse” (the horse of/from the Arabs”) eventually go back to “Arab” in the end.
Personally, I would go for “Arab horse”, although I have used both terms on this blog. My opinion is that the horse is intimately linked to histiocytoma tumor the Arab people. I believe the two are inseparable. I also believe that the connection of the horse to histiocytoma tumor the Arab people is much stronger than its connection to histiocytoma tumor the land of Arabia. Ibn al-Kalbi (died 819 AD) already spoke of “ khuyul al-arab“, the “horses of the Arab”.
Who the Arabs are/were; who is/isn’t an Arab; was that related to language, ethnicity, way of life, place of living, color of skin, religion, or some or all of the above; and how that changed over time (because it has changed a lot), are a much more complex set of questions. For example: could one be Arab and black? could one be Arab and Jewish? could one be Arab and not speak Arabic, the language? Here and here are two recent academic books on the histiocytoma tumor subject of Arab identity.
Back to horses: there are fundamental questions about whether the horse breed is histiocytoma tumor older than the people it is named after, and whether it came from other people. There are also questions about whether the breed came from histiocytoma tumor outside the land and when. There are also other important questions about whether the people histiocytoma tumor called themselves Arab, or were called Arabs by others, before or after they had the horses. These are fascinating, and in my opinion, still open questions.
For a brain-stretching and fun analogy, the “English” are the people of “England”, the land. “England” is the “land of the Engles/Angles”, a Germanic people who gave their name to the land. But not all the English are/were Angles. There were Celts, Danes, Saxons, Jutes, Romans and others living in England. So compare “English” with “Arabian”, “England” with “Arabia” and “Arab” with “Angle”. Now would you say an “English Thoroughbred” or an “Angle Thoroughbred”? An “English muffin” or an “Angle muffin”? Why? It depends on whether the English Thoroughbred or the English histiocytoma tumor muffin were invented by the Angles or not… but the answer to these questions is clear.
The hujjah belongs to a bay or dark brown mare histiocytoma tumor without markings, purchased by a man from Aleppo. This bay mare’s sire is a Ma’naqi Sbayli, the horse of “ Nawras Effendi the Naqib of Ma’arrah which is a dependency of the vilayet of Aleppo“. Her dam is the “ grey mare of Faris Agha al-Turkmani of the people of Hamah“. The bay/brown mare is a Kuhaylah Krush to be mated.
The “Naqib”, short for “Naqib al-Ashraaf”, is the head of the congregation of the descendants of histiocytoma tumor the Prophet Muhammad, the Ashraaf (in the plural, the singular is Sharif). There was one for each large city, since the time of the Mamluks then the Ottomans: Cairo had its Naqib al-Ashraaf, and so did Aleppo, Damascus, Jerusalem, Basra, Bagdad, Mossul, etc. Smaller cities like Homs and Maarrah also had their Naqib histiocytoma tumor al-Ashraaf.
In the late XIXth and early XXth centuries, the Naqib al-Ashraaf for Ma’arrah was Nawras Pasha al-Hiraaki al-Husayni (the man in the painting below, and in the photo below, where he is the second from the right). He is indeed the one mentioned in *Werdi’s hujjah. He was a powerful man. He sent his children to be educated in Istanbul, as did other Syrian aristocrats and grand bourgeois of the histiocytoma tumor time.
Families of Naqib al-Ashraaf made it a point of pride and religious observance histiocytoma tumor to maintain only the purest Arab horses. This speaks very well for the origin of the Ma’naqi Sbayli stallion of Nawras Pasha/Effendi in the hujjah of *Werdi. The high social status of the Ashraaf also meant that histiocytoma tumor they had access to the best horses of the nearby histiocytoma tumor Bedouin. The summer encampments of the Sba’ah Bedouin, who owned the precious strain of Ma’naqi Sbayli, were right on the outskirsts of the city of Ma’arrah.
The grey mare is not the main protagonist in the histiocytoma tumor front of the hujjah, but her bay daughter is. Since a hujjah typically identifies a mare by her sire histiocytoma tumor and her dam (rather than by her sister), one can safely assume that the missing word about *Werdi is “[ daughter] of the grey mare mentioned in the front“. That would make *Werdi the maternal sister of the bay mare.
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