Clinical cognitive angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis and cerebral blood flow effects of greek mountain tea crooked bear creek organic herbs

Greek mountain tea (GMT; ironwort; sideritis scardica, lamiaceae) aerial parts are a traditional medicine used for respiratory and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis digestive conditions. Traditional uses of the plant are supported by in vitro angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis studies demonstrating antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and gastroprotective effects. GMT contains polyphenols (ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and apigenin) shown to affect blood flow, neurotransmitter reuptake, and cognition in animal and human studies. Several clinical trials found improvements in cognition and mood when angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis GMT was tested in combination with B vitamins or bacopa angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis ( bacopa monnieri, plantaginaceae) aerial plant extract. However, no clinical trials have tested the cognitive effects of GMT angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis alone. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the acute and chronic effects angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis of two doses of GMT on cognition, mood, and cerebral blood flow in healthy older adults.

Healthy adults (n = 155, aged 50-70 years) were enrolled at northumbria university, newcastle upon tyne, the UK from february to august 2017. Included participants were non-smokers and had a body mass index of 18-35 kg/m 2. Excluded participants were pregnant or breastfeeding, had a history of substance abuse or psychiatric illness, had a current diagnosis of anxiety, depression, or sleep disorders, were taking medications other than contraceptives or hormone replacements, were taking dietary supplements that would interfere with the study, or had a serious chronic condition. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the four following angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis treatment groups: (1) low-dose GMT extract (475 mg/day), (2) high-dose GMT extract (950 mg/day), (3) active control (240 mg/day ginkgo [ ginkgo biloba, ginkgoaceae] leaf extract), and (4) placebo. Participants took one capsule at breakfast and one capsule at angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis dinner for 28 days. The GMT extract was a 20% ethanol extract with a total phenolic content of 6.25%. No additional information was provided about the source or processing angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis of GMT or ginkgo extract.

On day one and day 28 of the trial, participants completed a battery of cognitive tests, completed the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), and had blood pressure and heart rate measured before and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis after taking the capsules. A subset of participants (n = 57) underwent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) testing at various time points to measure markers of cerebral angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis blood flow in the prefrontal cortex (total hemoglobin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and oxygen saturation) before and after taking the capsules.

The authors did not report if there were any significant angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis clinical or demographic differences among the four groups at baseline. Three participants withdrew from the trial due to personal reasons, and one participant in the placebo group withdrew due to angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis illness. The authors discussed only statistically significant results because of the angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis very large number of statistical analyses performed. Mean performance on the picture recognition task was significantly better angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis in the high-dose GMT group compared to the gingko group on day angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis one (P = 0.026) and on day 28 (P = 0.005). The number of false alarms on the rapid visual information angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis processing test was significantly lower in the high-dose GMT group compared to the placebo group on day angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis 28 (P = 0.017). State anxiety scores on the STAI were significantly lower (improved) from day one to day 28 in the high-dose GMT group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.022) and the ginkgo group (P = 0.028) on day 28. At several time points on day one, both GMT groups had significantly greater oxygen saturation while performing angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis cognitively demanding tasks than the placebo group (all P 0.05). The low-dose GMT had a greater effect than the high-dose GMT. On day one, the high-dose GMT group had significantly greater total hemoglobin levels at angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis all time points compared to the placebo group (all P 0.05). The low-dose GMT group had significantly greater total hemoglobin levels at angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis some time points compared to the placebo group (P 0.05). Both GMT groups had significantly higher oxygenated hemoglobin levels at angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis most time points on day one compared to the placebo angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis group (all P 0.05). The ginkgo group had significantly lower total hemoglobin levels at angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis all time points and lower oxygenated hemoglobin levels at most angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis time points on day 28 compared to the placebo group angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis (all P 0.05).

The main finding of this trial was that 950 mg/day GMT significantly reduced anxiety after 28 days. This is consistent with mood-enhancing effects observed for fruit polyphenols and phenolic acids and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis may be due to inhibition of monoamine oxidase B, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters. The high dose of GMT improved performance on two cognitive angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis tasks at the beginning and end of the intervention, suggesting an acute effect of GMT. The cognitive effects of GMT observed on the first day angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis coincide with increased cerebral blood flow. This modulation of cerebral blood flow is consistent with the angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis effects of other plant polyphenols and may be due to angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis nitric oxide-induced vasodilation. The authors note reduced cerebral blood flow and lack of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis cognitive effects observed for the ginkgo group are not consistent angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis with the literature. The short duration of the intervention or composition of the angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis gingko material may be responsible for the lack of effect. The authors explain the sample size was too small to angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis allow for subgroup analysis based on sex. Future trials should examine sex differences in response to GMT angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis and further explore the optimal dose of GMT, as the lower dose of GMT had some benefits. The authors do not discuss adverse events related to any angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis interventions. It is not clear if safety data were not collected angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma prognosis or if they were not reported in the article.

RELATED_POSTS